Norway in America

Thor M. Andersen's bibliography (TMA)


You can search in 5 different fields in TMA or in a combination of these. In each field you can combine terms by using the logical operators and, or and not.


The term author in TMA is used for anyone who has written or translated printed matter.

If you are ONLY looking for the printed documents which an author may have written, write the person's name, last name first, in the AUTHOR box, eg.

AUTHOR: Ager, Waldemar
AUTHOR: Hamsun, Knut


If you are ONLY looking for a document with a specific title, or for a word or combination of words in a title, use the TITLE box, eg.

TITLE: History of Linn County Iowa

Person as subject:

If you are looking for information ABOUT a specific person, whether or not they have written any documents, use the PERSON box, last name first, eg.

Person as subject: Bull, Ole

(ATTENTION! When you use the PERSON box you will not find information about the documents which a person may have written. Use the author box for this.)

Geographic name:

If you are ONLY looking for information about a specific place- town, county or state/province in America or Norway, use the PLACE box. eg.

Geographic name: Lac qui Parle Co

(ATTENTION! If you are also looking for information about institutions, meetings etc. in a specific place use the FREE TEXT box.)


If you are looking for ALL POSSIBLE INFORMATION in the bibliography about a person, place or publication, use the FREE TEXT box.


TMA has no subject index, key words, Dewey number or other subject classification. If you are looking for information on a specific subject you must try to think of the words which an author might have used in the title of documents on the subject. Eg. if you are looking for information about Norwegian-Americans in the Civil War you may want to try Civil War, battle, regiment, soldier, camp, lieutenant etc. Remember that many documents are also in Norwegian and look also for krig, kamp, leir, soldat etc.


The truncation symbols # and : some examples

The truncation symbol : can replace one letter at the end, the beginning or in the middle of a word.

Many migrants with last names ending in -sen also used -son in America. eg. Andersen/Anderson. Use Anders:n to look for both possibilities.

The truncation symbol # can replace one or more letters at the end, the beginning or in the middle of a word.

People with names such as Kristiansen also used Christiansen. Use #ristiansen to look for both.
Some emigrants spelled their names with a double s eg. Johanssen/Johansen. Use Johan#en to search for both.
People often used only initials for first names: Use eg. Bergan, P#

Spelling in Norwegian and English

Remember that some Norwegian words were spelled differently before. Look for both possibilities eg. Skjåk and Sjaak. Newly arrived immigrants using American placenames often spelled in their own way. Be creative.

The Norwegian letters æ,ø,å and Swedish/German ä, ö, ü

If you do not have these letters on your keyboard use a,o,a and a,o,u respectively, or the abbreviation symbol : . Do NOT use ae, oe, aa. ue etc. Some Norwegian documents in America were printed on Swedish or English presses where ä is used instead of æ, and ö instead of ø.

The use of [ ]

Text which is contained within square brackets has been supplied by the bibliographer or editor in order to give you additional information. eg.

A memory. [Poem.]
which indicates that a document entitled A memory is in verse form. In some cases the whole title is presented within square brackets especially for newspaper articles. This indicates that the article did not have a real title in the newspaper but the bibliographer has constructed the title. Such added information is presented in English whenever possible.